After conquering successfully the fortress of Khaibar, and the Jews had left their land in As-Syiqq, Nathah, and Al-Katibah, the Prophet SAW continued his expedition to Fadak and Wadil Qurro. Entering these two sub-regions of Khaibar, the Messenger of Allāh was without any resistance. The Jews felt fear, and eventually they fled, leaving their homes and fertile farmland. Automatically the Fadak and Wadil Qurro agricultural lands became Muslim lands, as state owned land (fay’i land).
The management of state-owned land for Fadak and Wadil Qurro was different from the land management of As-Syiqq, Nathah, and Al-Katibah. For these three sub-Khaibar regions, Rasulullah distributed them to the Muslims, but for Fadak and Wadil Qurro, Rasulullah SAW did not distribute them. He directly managed the state-owned land, and calling for Jews – as the original owner of the land – to become cultivators of the agricultural land (Al-Muafiri, 2003). Muslim has narrated from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah had employed the inhabitants of Khaibar with half of the products of Khaibar in the form of fruits and vegetables. In this case, Rasulullah SAW introduced the al-musaqoh cooperation scheme, namely a profit sharing between landowners and tenants, where all costs of land management are borne by the land owner, with a profit sharing ratio between landowners and tenants according to the agreement (Sabiq, 1993).
Rasulullah SAW in partnership with the Jews did not let him but completely monitored him by appointing Abdullah bin Rawahah as a special officer who supervised and counted the amount of agricultural products yielded from the land of Khaibar. When Abdullah bin Rawahah was struck down, where he was martyred in the Mu’tah War (629 AD/8 H), the Prophet appointed his successor, Jabbar bin Shahr bin Ummayah. The al-Musaqoh’s cooperation with Jews to manage the Khaibar agricultural land lasted until the reign of Umar bin al-Khaththab (634 AD-644 AD / 13-23 H) (Al-Muafiri, 2003).
Dual System of Food Production
In the light of Khaibar fact – both the first stage of Khaibar in which it is covering As-Syiqq, Nathah, and Al-Katibah; and the second stage of Khaibar including Fadak and Wad al-Qurro – then the production of staple food in the Islamic system is divided into two parts. First, each individual is obliged to meet their food needs. This is in line with the obligation to earn a living cost for an adult male who got married. But regarding the issue of land which belongs to individuals, it is optional, may be used for farming but may also be used for other purposes according to the needs and interests of the owner. Some of their land may also be used for farming, and some for non-agricultural uses. Even in the time of Prophet Muhammad there were garden owners who dedicated their gardens to the Prophet Muhammad to farm and to produce food. The land they endow is often known by the name of the endowers, such as Muhairiq’s khawaith (estate), and hawaith of Abu Dahdah (Al-Karmi, 2012).
The first stage of the Khaibar case — in which the Prophet distributed fertile state owned agricultural land to the Muslims – emphasized that food procurement in the Islamic system was an individual obligation. For this reason, the Prophet SAW encouraged individuals to maintain land productivity and the sustainability of food agriculture. If someone intended their land for farming, and geographically the land is located in an agricultural area and suitable for farming, then Prophet prohibited letting the land unproductive for a maximum of two years. This law applies to individual land owners that he obtained the land by a commercial transaction or the land that he obtained from a state gift (Al-Baghdadi, 1997)
Second, food production is handled directly by the state by utilizing and functionalizing the state-owned land. The second stage of Khaibar case indicated the second category of land management and food production patterns which are directly handled by the state. Therefore, the Islamic system of staple food production takes a dual system, by individual citizen and by state. This should be a lesson for food agricultural land management in contemporary life. ***
Ajjaj al-Karmi, H.A., 2012. Al-Idaroh fi ishril Rasulillah Shallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam, Edisi Bahasa Indonesia, terjemahan Utsman Zahid as-Sidany, Bogor: Pustaka Thoriqul Izzah.
Al-Baghdady, Abdurrahman. 1987, Hukmul Islam Fi Ijaratil Ardh Liz Ziro’ah, Hukmul Islam Fi Malil Ghulul Minal Hukkam wa Muwazh-Zhifid Daulah, Ma’ayirul Athwal Wal Misahat Wal Akyal Wal Awzan Asy-Syariyyah, Indonesian, Bandung: Al-Maarif.
Al-Muafiri, Abu Muhammad Abu Al-Malik bin Hisyam, 2003. Siroh Nabawiyyah Ibnu Hisyam, Edisi Bahasa Indonesia, terjemahan Fadhli Bahri, Jakarta: Darul Falah
Sabiq, Sayyid. Fiqh Sunnah. Indonesian Edition. Bandung: Pustaka, 1993